What Are the Key Components of an Energy Storage BMS

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Battery management plays a crucial role in maintaining the safety and performance of any battery pack that consists of multiple cells and groups of batteries. It can balance those cells and maintain performance thanks to the complex electronics that work together to make the energy storage BMS.

What Are the Key Components of an Energy Storage BMS?

There are several key components of an energy storage BMS, and here we will discuss the top 7.
  1. Voltage monitoring
The voltage monitoring component measures voltage on individual cell levels, group levels, and the upper levels. In this way, it ensures that the battery pack is at the right voltage. Meanwhile, the group voltages and individual cell voltages are also considered to ensure every cell stays within the safe operational limits.
  1. Current monitoring
Just like voltage monitoring is important, current monitoring is also very important for an energy storage BMS. This component in the circuitry monitors the current flowing in or out of the battery to ensure the safe operation of both the battery and the load connected to the battery pack.
  1. Temperature monitoring
One of the biggest concerns for battery safety is operating in the safe temperature ranges, and temperature monitoring systems do that. Whenever they sense that the battery temperature is going beyond the optimal range, they either cut off the power or use cooling/heating solutions to maintain the optimal working temperature for the battery.
  1. Protection circuits
Every BMS is packed with lots of protection circuit components. It is because whenever there is something wrong with the battery, circuit, or load, the battery can get permanent damage. So, these circuits ensure the safe operation of the whole system. The protection circuit components include:
  • Overcurrent protection
  • Thermal protection
  • Short circuit protection
  • Overcharge protection
  • Over-discharging protection, etc.
  1. SoC & SoH estimation
The state of charge estimation circuit calculates the current charge level of the battery according to the current, voltage, and temperatures. Meanwhile, the state of health estimation circuit calculates the overall health of your battery and the degradation over time to predict battery usability.
  1. Circuit Balancing
Circuit balancing components ensure that the whole circuit is balanced, including the individual cells. The BMS may utilize an active balancing circuit that charges low-voltage cells with high-voltage cells. Similarly, there could be passive balancing where low-charge cells are not changed while the high-charge cells are discharged with resistors.
  1. User interface
Some battery management systems provide a user interface that can be used to monitor and control the working of the battery and circuit. These not only provide real-time performance stats, but users can get diagnostics data and other information to identify performance metrics and any potential issues.
Apart from these, more components have vital importance in the working of a BMS, including communication interface, relays, connectors, thermal management, alert systems, data logging and storage, etc.

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